Wie Mohammed Zainab
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Die Ehe mit Zainab bint Dschahsch war mehr als ungewöhnlich. Sie war die Frau seines
Adoptivsohnes. Einmal war Mohammed zu
Besuch, und sein Sohn war nicht dabei. Er begehrte sie, nachdem er sie leicht
bekleidet zu Gesicht bekommen hatte.Zainab liess sich von Mohammeds Sohn
scheiden, damit Mohammed sie heiraten konnte. Weil dies nach damaligem Gesetz als Inzest galt,
schlugen die Wellen der Empörung hoch, und so bedurfte es einer "göttlichen Offenbarung" zur Rechtfertigung Mohammeds:
Allah hat keinem Manne zwei Herzen in seinem Innern gegeben, noch hat Er jene
unter euren Frauen, die ihr Mütter nennt, zu euren Müttern gemacht, noch hat Er
eure angenommenen Söhne zu euren Söhnen gemacht. Das ist Gerede aus euren
Mündern; Allah aber spricht die Wahrheit, und Er zeigt den Weg.
Nennt sie nach ihren Vätern. Das ist billiger vor Allah. Wenn ihr jedoch ihre
Väter nicht kennt, so sind sie eure Brüder im Glauben und eure Freunde. Und was
ihr versehentlich darin gefehlt habt, das ist euch keine Sünde, sondern nur das,
was eure Herzen vorsätzlich tun. Und Allah ist allverzeihend, barmherzig.
Und (gedenke der Zeit) da du zu dem sprachst, dem Allah Gnade erwiesen hatte und
dem (auch) du Gnade erwiesen hattest: "Behalte deine Frau für dich und fürchte
Allah." Und du verbargest in deiner Seele, was Allah ans Licht bringen wollte,
und du fürchtetest die Menschen, während Allah mehr verdient, daß du Ihn
fürchtest. Dann aber, als Zaid tat, was er mit ihr zu tun wünschte, verbanden
Wir sie ehelich mit dir, damit für die Gläubigen keine Beunruhigung bestünde in
bezug auf die Frauen ihrer angenommenen Söhne, wenn sie ihren Wunsch ausgeführt
haben. Allahs Ratschluß muß vollzogen werden.
Ein sehr wichtiger Auszug: "Und du verbargest in deiner Seele, was Allah ans Licht bringen wollte".
Mohammed verbarg die Lust, eine verheiratete Frau zu heiraten. Bevor Zayd und
Zaina geschieden waren, war dieser Wunsch schon in Mohammeds Kopf entstanden
worden. Ibn Kathir berichtet, dass Aicha zu diesem
Vers gesagt hat: "Wenn Allahs Gesandte einen Teil der Offenbarung verbergen sollte, hätte er das verborgen".
Und natürlich ist die Sache sehr gut gedacht: Mohammed erfindet einen Vers, in dem er von Allah zurückgewiesen wird,
um zu "beweisen", dass der Vers tatsächlich von Allah kommt.
Quellen zu diesem Ereignis (Hadiths, Tafsirs, auf englisch):
bin Haritha came to the Prophet complaining about his wife. The Prophet kept
on saying (to him), "Be afraid of Allah and keep your wife." Aisha said, "If
Allah’s Apostle were to conceal anything (of the Quran) he would have concealed
this Verse." Zainab used to boast before the wives of the Prophet and used to
say, "You were given in marriage by your families, while I was married (to the
Prophet) by Allah from over seven Heavens." And Thabit recited, "The Verse:--
‘But (O Muhammad) you did hide in your heart that which Allah was about to make
manifest, you did fear the people,' (33.37) was revealed in connection with
Zainab and Zaid bin Haritha." (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 9, Book 93, Number
Wie wir weiter sehen werden, der Grund, warum Zayd sich über
seine Frau beklakte war, dass sie anfing, ihn zu geringsschätzen, seitdem sie
Mohammed ihre Schönheit hatte preisen hören. Dieser andere Hadith ist eher
Anas (Allah be pleased with him) reported: When
the ‘Iddah of Zainab was over, Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said to
Zaid to make a mention to her about him. Zaid went on until he came to
her and she was fermenting her flour. He (Zaid) said: As I saw her I felt in my
heart an idea of her greatness so much so that I could not see towards her
(simply for the fact) that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) had made a
mention of her. So I turned my back towards her, and I turned upon my heels, and
said: Zainab, Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) has sent (me) with a
message to you. She said: I do not do anything until I solicit the will of my
Lord. So she stood at her place of worship and the (verse of) the Qur’an
(pertaining to her marriage) was revealed, and Allah’s Messenger (may peace be
upon him) came to her without permission… (Sahih Muslim, Book
Nach diesem Text ist der koranische Vers über Mohammed und
Zainab erst nachdem Mohammed Zainab gefreit hatte, "offenbart" worden.
Dies bestätigt die Meinung, dass Mohammed eine Berechtigung suchte, um die
geschiedene Frau seines Adoptivsohnes zu heiraten, und dass er Zainab zu
überzeugen brauchte, dass sie Gottes Willen erfüllte, in dem sie sich von
Mohammed heiraten liess. Dieser Hadith beweist, dass Mohammed Zainab heiraten
wollte, bevor der Vers, der die Art von Ehe erlaubte, geschrieben wurde.
The Messenger of God came to the house of Zayd b. Harithah. (Zayd was
always called Zayd b. Muhammad.) Perhaps the Messenger of God missed him at
that moment, so as to ask, "Where is Zayd?" He came to his residence to look for
him but did not find him. Zaynab bt. Jash, Zayd’s wife, rose to meet him.
Because she was dressed only in a shift, the Messenger of God turned away from
her. She said: "He is not here, Messenger of God. Come in, you who are as dear
to me as my father and mother!" The Messenger of God refused to enter. Zaynab
had dressed in haste when she was told "the Messenger of God is at the door."
She jumped up in haste and excited the admiration of the Messenger of
God, so that he turned away murmuring something that could scarcely be
understood. However, he did say overtly: "Glory be to God the Almighty! Glory be
to God, who causes the hearts to turn!"
When Zayd came home, his wife told him that the Messenger of God had come to
his house. Zayd said, "Why didn't you ask him to come in?" He replied, "I asked
him, but he refused." "Did you hear him say anything?" he asked. She replied,
"As he turned away, I heard him say: ‘Glory be to God the Almighty! Glory be to
God, who causes hearts to turn!’"
So Zayd left, and having come to the Messenger of God, he said: "Messenger of
God, I have heard that you came to my house. Why didn’t you go in, you who are
as dear to me as my father and mother? Messenger of God, perhaps Zaynab has
excited your admiration, and so I will separate myself from her." Zayd could
find no possible way to [approach] her after that day. He would come to the
Messenger of God and tell him so, but the Messenger of God would say to him,
"Keep your wife." Zayd separated from her and left her, and she became free.
While the Messenger of God was talking with 'A'isha, a fainting overcame him.
When he was released from it, he smiled and said, "Who will go to Zaynab to tell
her the good news, saying that God has married her to me?" Then the Messenger of
God recited: "And when you said unto him on whom God has conferred favor and you
have conferred favor, ‘Keep your wife to yourself .’"- and the entire
because of what we
heard about her beauty and another thing, the greatest and loftiest of
matters - what God had done for her by giving her in marriage. I said she would
boast of it over us." (The History of Al-Tabari: The Victory of Islam,
translated by Michael Fishbein [State University of New York Press, Albany,
1997], Volume VIII, pp. 2-3)
The History of al-Tabari: Biographies of the
Prophet's Companions and Their Successors, translated by Ella
Landau-Tasseron [State University of New York Press (SUNY), Albany 1998], Volume
XXXIX (39), pp. 9-10)
Der folgende Auszug ist die Übersetzung
zum Kommentar von Tabari zum 37. Vers der 33. Sure:
THOUGH THE PROPHET DESIRED THAT THEY SEPARATE SO THAT HE COULD
When Zainab realized that
the prophet desired her SHE BEGAN TO HATE ZAID.
prophet was concealing the fact that he would marry Zainab when Zaid had
divorced her. (Source;
translated by Dimitrius)
Kommentare des berühmten Muslims und
who then understood (what he had to
do). Zaid said to the prophet, "O prophet of Allah, allow me to divorce her,
for she has become arrogant; seeing herself superior to me and she insults me
with her tongue."
HE DESIRED HER and it
delighted Zainab to be desired by the prophet – pbuh. When Zaid returned home,
she informed him of what had happened and Zaid was thus determined to divorce
translated by Dimitrius)
Al-Qurtubi hat eine Liste von "Segnen"
und Privilegen, die nur Mohammed hatte, sie enthält das Recht, die Frau eines
anderen Mannes zu nehmen, wenn er Lust hat:
Nikah) her; this only for thee, and not for the Believers
As for what was granted and made lawful (by Allah) to the prophet –pbuh– they
are 16 issues:-
First: To be fair with the spoils.
Second: To (forcefully) take a fifth of a fifth or just a fifth (of the
spoils of war).
Third: "Al Wisal" (Dimitrius- the fast or fasting. This usually refers to
fasting or abstaining from food.)
Fourth: To take more than four women.
Fifth: To marry, "Yas-tan-kih" (or have intercourse), with a woman who
verbally pronounces her dedication (to the prophet).
Sixth: To marry, "Yas-tan-kih," without the presence (or permission) of a
Seventh: To marry, "Yas-tan-kih," without a dowry.
Eighth: To marry (and have intercourse) during a state of ritual
consecration and purification.
Ninth: The annulment of an oath he may make to his wives.
Tenth: If Muhammad looks at a woman (and desires her) THEN IT IS
NECESSARY FOR HER HUSBAND TO DIVORCE HER AND FOR MUHAMMAD TO MARRY HER. Ibn
Al A’raby said, "This is what the servant of the two holy mosques has also
said, as was clear to the scholars FROM THE STORY OF ZAID which also had
Eleventh: That the prophet released Safiyyah (from her captured status) and
he considered her release as her dowry.
Twelfth: To enter Mecca without being in a state of ritual purification.
Thirteenth: To fight in Mecca.
Fourteenth: That he is not inherited by anyone at all. This was mentioned in
the oath of absolution for when a man approaches death due to illness, most of
his possessions are taken away, so that he does not have more than a third left
for him. But the possessions of the prophet remained for him, as is evidenced in
the verse of inheritance and in Surat Mariam.
Fifteenth: His marriage is still considered effective after his death.
Sixteenth: If he divorces a woman she remains prohibited to everyone and may
not be married, "Nikah," to someone else.
al-Jalalayn sagt zu den Versen 36 und 37 der Sure 33 aus:
takuna or yakuna) a choice in their matter, in
contravention of the decision of God and His Messenger. This [verse] was
revealed regarding 'Abd Allah b. Jahsh and
his sister Zaynab, whose hand the Prophet had asked for in marriage, but meaning
on behalf of Zayd b. Haritha. They were loathe to this [proposal] when they
found out [that it was on the latter's behalf], for they had thought that
the Prophet (s) wanted to marry her himself. But afterwards they consented
because of the [following part of the] verse: And whoever disobeys God and His
Messenger has certainly strayed into manifest error. Thus the Prophet (s) gave
her in marriage to Zayd. Then on one occasion he [the Prophet] caught
sight of her and felt love for her, whereafter [when he realised that]
Zayd lost his affection for her and so said to the Prophet (s), 'I want to part
with her'. But the Prophet said to him, 'Retain your wife for yourself', as God,
exalted be He, says: (Source)
idh is dependent because of [an implied preceding]
udhkur, 'mention [when]') you said to him to whom God had shown favour,
by [guiding him to] Islam, and to whom you [too] had shown favour: by
manumitting him - this was Zayd b. Haritha,
who had been a prisoner of war before [the coming of] Islam
(al-jahiliyya). The Messenger of God (s) purchased him before his
call to prophethood, and then manumitted him and adopted him as his son -
'Retain your wife for yourself and fear God', before divorcing her. But you had
hidden in your heart what God was to disclose, [what] He was to manifest
of your love for her and of [the fact] that should Zayd part with her you would
marry her, and you feared people, would say, ‘He has married his son’s
wife!’, though God is worthier that you should fear Him, in all things,
so take her in marriage and do not be concerned with what people say. Zayd
subsequently divorced her and her [obligatory] waiting period was completed.
God, exalted be He, says: So when Zayd had fulfilled whatever need he had of
her, We joined her in marriage to you - the Prophet consummated his marriage
with her without [the customary] permission [from her legal
guardian] and gratified the Muslims with [a feast of] bread and meat -
so that there may not be any restriction for the believers in respect of the
wives of their adopted sons, when the latter have fulfilled whatever wish they
have of them. And God's commandment, that which He has decreed, is bound to be
Kommentar von Ibn Abbas:
(And when thou saidst
unto him on whom Allah hath conferred favour) through Islam, i.e. Zayd (and thou
hast conferred favour) on him by emancipating him: (Keep thy wife to thyself)
and do not divorce her, (and fear Allah) and fear Allah and do not let her go.
(And thou didst hide in your mind) her love and the desire to marry
her (that which Allah was to bring to light) in the Qur’an, (and thou
didst fear mankind) and you feel ashamed of people because of this
(whereas Allah had a better right that thou shouldst fear Him) whereas you
should be ashamed of Allah. (So when Zayd had performed the necessary formality
(of divorce) from her) when she has finished her waiting period after her
divorce from Zayd, (We gave her unto thee in marriage, so that (henceforth))
after you (there may be no sin for believers about wives of their adopted sons,
when the latter have performed the necessary formality (of release) from them)
when they had finished their waiting period after they are divorced or after the
death of their husband. (The commandment of Allah) marrying Zayd to Muhammad
(pbuh) (must be fulfilled) must take place. (Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn
edition; bold and underline emphasis ours)
Al-Zamakhshari zu diesem Thema:
Keep thy wife to thyself: that is, Zainab bint Jahsh. After having given
her to Zaid ibn Haritha as a wife, the Messenger of God once caught sight of
her, and she made an impression of him. At this sight he said: ‘Praise be to God
who changes the heart!’ Previously his soul had turned away from her so that he
had not desired her (as a wife). If he had desired her at that time, he would
have asked her for her hand in marriage. Now Zainab heard of this praise and
mentioned it to (her husband) Zaid, who understood and to whom God gave
antipathy against her and aversion to intimacy with her. So Zaid said to the
Messenger of God: ‘I might divorce my wife’; to which the latter replied: ‘What
is it? Has something filled you with mistrust against her?’ Zaid answered: ‘By
God, no! I have observed only good in her; yet her noble rank places her too
high above me and causes me to feel hurt.’ Thereupon the Messenger of God said:
‘Keep thy wife to thyself and fear God.’ But Zaid (nevertheless) separated from
her, and as soon as the waiting period (during which the wife may enter into no
new marriage) had elapsed, the Messenger of God had said (to Zaid): ‘I have no
one whom I trust more than you; therefore, seek the hand of Zainab for me!’
Zaid reported: I went forth and there I suddenly found her just as she was
leavening some dough. As soon as I saw her she made such an impression on me,
since I knew that the Messenger of God had been speaking of her…
the fact that he was devoted to her in his heart. Others say: the wish
that Zaid might separate from her. Still others say: his knowledge that Zaid
would separate from her and that he would marry her, for God had already
given this knowledge to him…
The Qur'an and its Exegesis [Routledge and Keagan Paul, London UK 1976],
Diese islamischen Quellen kommen aus: http://answering-islam.org.uk/Shamoun/zaynab.htm
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